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    Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata


    Beloti, Victor Hugo and Rodrigues Alves, Gustavo and Dias Araújo, Diogo Feliciano and Manara Picoli, Mateus and de Andrade Moral, Rafael and Garcia Borges Demétrio, Clarice and Yamamoto, Pedro Takao (2015) Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata. PLoS ONE, 10. e0132128. ISSN 1932-6203

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    Abstract

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Huanglongbing (HLB); Candidatus Liberibacter spp; Lethal and Sublethal Effects; Insecticides; Citrus; Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Mathematics and Statistics
    Item ID: 10006
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132128
    Depositing User: Rafael de Andrade Moral
    Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2018 16:02
    Journal or Publication Title: PLoS ONE
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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