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    PENTEL actin-G immunoelectrode: Immunoassay at the tip of a pencil


    Rathod, Dhanraj and Warren, Susan and Seddon, Brian and Singh, Baljit and Dempsey, Eithne (2015) PENTEL actin-G immunoelectrode: Immunoassay at the tip of a pencil. Electroanalysis, 27 (1). pp. 166-176. ISSN 1040-0397

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    Abstract

    Here we present design and assay methodology of an actin‐G immunoelectrode for the quantitation of muscle protein, actin. The immunoelectrode was assembled using a proprietary pencil material composed of a polymer‐resin and graphite composite as an antibody support and electronic conductor. An effective immobilisation procedure for the capture antibody and surface blocking protein is cited based on a two‐step physisorption chemistry. BSA coverage was demonstrated to reduce non‐specific interactions to below 8 % of the base polymer‐graphite binding capacity. Immunoassays performed with the actin immunoelectrode utilise an o‐benzoquinone‐diimine electrochemistry which is formed in‐situ by interfacial peroxidase oxidation. Cyclic voltammetry data revealed the immunoelectrode surface to be porous to the diimine signalling molecule, while remaining inaccessible to macromolecules of the ELISA. The molecular structure and poly‐functional nature of the immunoelectrode was further investigated using an anti‐antibody peroxidase conjugate. The findings suggest that capture antibody is randomly dispersed over the surface, exposing both Fc and actin binding sites. A saturation current density – concentration curve was analysed by Langmuir adsorption theory and an estimate for the antibody binding affinity derived (Ka≈1×105 M−1). The actin immunoelectrode was applied as a peroxidase detector in a double‐antibody immunoassay. The electrode shows a dose‐response characteristic which is most sensitive to actin over the concentration range 1–100 ng mL−1. Immunoelectrode sensitivity for actin is of the order of 5 nA mm−2/ng mL−1 (10–100 ng mL−1) with a limit of detection estimated at 10 ng mL−1 and measurement precision RSD 7.1 % (100 ng mL−1 actin). At higher concentrations of actin, >100 ng mL−1 the immunoelectrode response is more complex. A high‐dose hook characteristic becomes evident which arises from macromolecular steric interactions and other binding site limitations at the electrode surface.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Pentel; Pencil; Graphite; Immunoelectrode; Actin; ELISA; Nonspecific Binding;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Chemistry
    Item ID: 12525
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201400396
    Depositing User: Eithne Dempsey
    Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2020 16:54
    Journal or Publication Title: Electroanalysis
    Publisher: Wiley
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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