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    Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps


    Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Balbi, A. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartlett, J.G. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bhatia, R. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Cabella, P. and Cantalupo, C.M. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Cayon, L. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chiang, L.-Y. and Christensen, P.R. and Clements, D.L. and Colombi, S. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Gasperis, G. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Desert, F.-X. and Dickinson, C. and Dobashi, K. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Dorl, U. and Douspis, M. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T.A. and Falgarone, E. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giardino, G. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Grupposo, A. and Hansen, F.K. and Harrison, D. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hovest, W. and Hoyland, R.J. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Jaffe, A.H. and Joncas, G. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knox, L. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Laureijs, R.J. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leach, S. and Leonardi, R. and Leroy, C. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and MacTavish, C.J. and Maffei, B. and Mandolesi, N. and Mann, R. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D.J. and Martin, P. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Marton, G. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Matthai, F. and Mazzotta, P. and McGehee, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Osborne, S. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T.J. and Pelkonen, V.-M. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Poutanen, T. and Prezeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Reach, W.T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Smoot, G.F. and Starck, J.-L. and Stivoli, F. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Torre, J.-P. and Toth, V. and Tristram, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Ysard, N. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zahorecz, S. and Zonca, A. (2011) Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 536 (A23). pp. 1-33. ISSN 0004-6361

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    Abstract

    We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10 342 cold sources that stand out against a warmer environment. The sources are distributed over the whole sky, including in the Galactic plane, despite the confusion, and up to high latitudes (>30◦). We find a strong spatial correlation of these sources with ancillary data tracing Galactic molecular structures and infrared dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K, with a distribution peaking around 13K. The data are inconsistent with a constant value of the associated spectral index β over the whole temperature range: β varies from 1.4 to 2.8, with a mean value around 2.1. Distances are obtained for approximately one third of the objects. Most of the detections lie within 2 kpc of the Sun, but more distant sources are also detected, out to 7 kpc. The mass estimates inferred from dust emission range from 0.4 M to 2.4 × 105 M. Their physical properties show that these cold sources trace a broad range of objects, from low-mass dense cores to giant molecular clouds, hence the “cold clump” terminology. This first statistical analysis of the C3PO reveals at least two colder populations of special interest with temperatures in the range 7 to 12K: cores that mostly lie close to the Sun; and massive cold clumps located in the inner Galaxy. We also describe the statistics of the early cold core (ECC) sample that is a subset of the C3PO, containing only the 915 most reliable detections. The ECC is delivered as a part of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC).

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: © ESO 2011 The original publication is available at DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116472
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; clouds; stars; formation; dust; extinction; submillimetre; ISM;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 4046
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2012 17:15
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: No
    URI:

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