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    MyD88 is an essential component of retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells.


    Sulaiman, Gomaa and Cooke, Aoife and Ffrench, Brendan and Gasch, Claudia and Abdullai, Olayemi Azeez and O'Connor, Kevin and Elbaruni, Salah and Blackshields, Gordon and Spillane, Cathy and Keegan, Helen and McEneaney, Victoria and Knittel, Ronan and Rogers, Annamarie and Jeffrey, Ian B. and Doyle, Brendan and Bates, Mark and d'Adhemar, Charles and Lee, Mathia Y.C. and Campbell, Eric L. and Moynagh, Paul N. and Higgins, Desmond G. and O'Toole, Sharon and O'Neill, Luke and O'Leary, John J. and Gallagher, Michael F. (2017) MyD88 is an essential component of retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell Death and Differentiation, 24. pp. 1975-1986. ISSN 1476-5403

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    Abstract

    We have previously reported that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is downregulated during all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of pluripotent NTera2 human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs), whereas its maintained expression is associated with RA differentiation resistance in nullipotent 2102Ep hECCs. MyD88 is the main adapter for toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling, where it determines the secretion of chemokines and cytokines in response to pathogens. In this study, we report that loss of MyD88 is essential for RA-facilitated differentiation of hECCs. Functional analysis using a specific MyD88 peptide inhibitor (PepInh) demonstrated that high MyD88 expression in the self-renewal state inhibits the expression of a specific set of HOX genes. In NTera2 cells, MyD88 is downregulated during RA-induced differentiation, a mechanism that could be broadly replicated by MyD88 PepInh treatment of 2102Ep cells. Notably, MyD88 inhibition transitioned 2102Ep cells into a stable, self-renewing state that appears to be primed for differentiation upon addition of RA. At a molecular level, MyD88 inhibition combined with RA treatment upregulated HOX, RA signalling and TLR signalling genes. These events permit differentiation through a standard downregulation of Oct4-Sox2-Nanog mechanism. In line with its role in regulating secretion of specific proteins, conditioned media experiments demonstrated that differentiated (MyD88 low) NTera2 cell media was sufficient to differentiate NTera2 cells. Protein array analysis indicated that this was owing to secretion of factors known to regulate angiogenesis, neurogenesis and all three branches of TGF-β Superfamily signalling. Collectively, these data offer new insights into RA controlled differentiation of pluripotent cells, with notable parallels to the ground state model of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. These data may provide insights to facilitate improved differentiation protocols for regenerative medicine and differentiation-therapies in cancer treatment.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Cancer stem cells; Stem-cell research; human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells; MyD88; Retinoic acid-induced differentiation;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Biology
    Item ID: 11047
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2017.124
    Depositing User: Professor Paul Moynagh
    Date Deposited: 16 Sep 2019 16:27
    Journal or Publication Title: Cell Death and Differentiation
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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