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    Epidemiological and virological investigations of equine influenza outbreaks in Ireland (2010–2012)


    Gildea, Sarah and Fitzpatrick, David A. and Cullinane, Ann (2013) Epidemiological and virological investigations of equine influenza outbreaks in Ireland (2010–2012). Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7 (S.4). pp. 61-74. ISSN 1750-2659

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    Abstract

    Background Outbreaks of equine influenza (EI) in endemic populations cause disruption and economic loss. Objectives To identify (i) factors involved in the spread of EI (ii) virus strains responsible for outbreaks (iii) single radial haemolysis (SRH) antibody levels correlating with protection against current virus strains (iv) evidence of vaccination breakdown. Methods RT-PCR, virus isolation and SRH were carried out on nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples collected from horses, ponies and donkeys on affected premises. Data relating to 629 samples from 135 equidae were analysed. Results and conclusions Outbreaks were sporadic, self limiting and associated with the movement of horses. Vaccination status and age influenced clinical signs of disease while housing and fomites contributed to virus spread. Subclinical infection as defined as a horse which tested positive by one or more of the following; RTPCR, virus isolation and seroconversion in the absence of clinical signs, was identified in 9% of animals. Of the horses with up to date vaccination records 32% developed clinical signs. Vaccine breakdown occurred among horses vaccinated with all four commercially available vaccines. Analysis of HA1 sequence data generated for 26 viruses indicated that they all belonged to clade 2 of the Florida sublineage. Higher SRH antibody levels were required for both clinical and virological protection than reported in studies where vaccine strains were antigenically and genetically similar to those circulating in the field. The results of this study therefore support the OIE recommendations that vaccines be updated to include representatives of both clades of the Florida sublineage

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: This article is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. Permission is therefore not required for academic or commercial reuse, provided that full attribution is included in the new work. Please cite this paper as: Gildea et al. (2013) Epidemiological and virological investigations of equine influenza outbreaks in Ireland (2010–2012). Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7 (Suppl. 4), 61–72.
    Keywords: Equine; influenza; investigations; Ireland; outbreak;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Biology
    Item ID: 6260
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12192
    Depositing User: David Fitzpatrick
    Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2015 11:38
    Journal or Publication Title: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
    Publisher: Wiley Open Access
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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