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    A cross-country psychiatric screening of ICD-11 disorders specifically associated with stress in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana

    Menachem, Ben-Ezra and Hyland, Philip and Karatzias, Thanos and Maercker, Andreas and Hamama-Raz, Yaira and Lavenda, Osnat and Mahat-Shamir, Michal and Shevlin, Mark (2020) A cross-country psychiatric screening of ICD-11 disorders specifically associated with stress in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11 (1). p. 1720972. ISSN 2000-8066

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    Background: The Global Forum for Health Research, with the support of the World Health Organization, highlighted the need to prioritize mental health research in Africa. The introduction of revised descriptions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Adjustment Disorder, along with new diagnoses of Complex PTSD and Prolonged Grief Disorder, in the ICD-11 creates a need for additional national-level epidemiological studies on the prevalence of stress-related disorders. Methods: The prevalence rates of these four ICD-11 stress disorders were assessed in three African countries including Nigeria (N = 1006), Kenya (N = 1018), and Ghana (N = 500). Participants completed disorder-specific measures for each disorder. Findings: Across the entire sample, the current prevalence rate of probable Adjustment Disorder was 8.4% (95% C.I. = 7.4%, 9.6%), probable PTSD was 18.6% (95% C.I. = 17.2, 20.2%), probable Complex PTSD was 15.9% (95% C.I. = 14.5%, 17.4%) and probable Prolonged Grief Disorder was 3.7% (95% C.I. = 3.1%, 4.5%). Interpretation: The results are applicable primarily to well-educated urban and suburban adults in these African countries. Results indicated that Adjustment Disorder, PTSD, and CPTSD are highly prevalent in these three African countries. There is now a pressing need to develop culturally sensitive interventions to enable recovery from these conditions.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Cite as: Menachem Ben-Ezra, Philip Hyland, Thanos Karatzias, Andreas Maercker, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Osnat Lavenda, Michal Mahat-Shamir & Mark Shevlin (2020) A crosscountry psychiatric screening of ICD-11 disorders specifically associated with stress in Kenya, Nigeria and Ghana, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11:1, 1720972, DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2020.1720972
    Keywords: ICD-11; stress disorders; Adjustment Disorder; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; PTSD; Complex PTSD; Prolonged Grief Disorder; African Countries; epidemiology;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Psychology
    Item ID: 12689
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Philip Hyland
    Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2020 16:51
    Journal or Publication Title: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis Open
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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