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    The structure of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD in Lithuanian mental health services

    Kazlauskas, Evaldas and Gegieckaite, Goda and Hyland, Philip and Zelviene, Paulina and Cloitre, Marylene (2018) The structure of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD in Lithuanian mental health services. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9 (1). p. 1414559. ISSN 2000-8066

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    Background: The updated 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is expected to be released by the WHO in 2018. Disorders specifically associated with stress will be included in a separate chapter in ICD-11, and will include a revision of ICD-10 PTSD as well as a new diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). The proposed symptom structures of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD have been validated in several studies previously, however few studies have used the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ), a specific measure for ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD. Given that ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD diagnoses are intended to be applicable across different cultures and nations, it is important that the constructs be evaluated across diverse populations and languages. Objective: Study of the psychological impact of trauma is relatively new in Lithuania, coinciding with its independence from the Soviet Union in the 1990s. Studies thus far reveal a population suffering from the effects of long-term and systematic political oppression and violence. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the symptoms and structure of PTSD and CPTSD in a Lithuanian treatment-seeking sample as measured by the ITQ. Method: A total of 280 patients from outpatient mental health centres participated in this study. PTSD and CPTSD symptoms were measured with the ITQ. We applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class analysis (LCA) for analysis of data. Results and conclusions: Our study supported the ICD-11 factor structure of CPTSD, and a three-class model was supported in LCA analysis with a PTSD class, a CPTSD class, and a low symptom class. Findings support the factorial and discriminant validity of the ICD-11 proposals for PTSD and CPTSD in a unique clinical population.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Cite as: Evaldas Kazlauskas, Goda Gegieckaite, Philip Hyland, Paulina Zelviene & Marylene Cloitre (2018) The structure of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD in Lithuanian mental health services, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9:1, DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1414559
    Keywords: ICD-11; PTSD; complex PTSD; latent class analysis; validation;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Psychology
    Item ID: 12693
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Philip Hyland
    Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2020 16:41
    Journal or Publication Title: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis Open
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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