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    A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data


    Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Ahmed, Z. and Aikin, R.W. and Alexander, K.D. and Arnaud, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barkats, D. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartlett, J.G. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Benton, S.J. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bischoff, C.A. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Brevik, J.A. and Bucher, M. and Buder, I. and Bullock, E. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Buza, V. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Connors, J. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Desert, F.-X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Dowell, C.D. and Duband, L. and Ducout, A. and Dunkley, J. and Dupac, X. and Dvorkin, Cora and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Falgarone, E. and Filippini, J.P. and Finelli, F. and Fliescher, S. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and Golwala, S.R. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J.E. and Halpern, M. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D.L. and Hasselfield, M. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hilton, G. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hovest, W. and Hristov, V.V. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hui, H. and Hurier, G. and Irwin, K.D. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jewell, J. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Karakci, A. and Karkare, K.S. and Kaufman, J.P. and Keating, B.G. and Kefeli, S. and Keihanen, E. and Kernasovskiy, S.A. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Knox, L. and Kovac, J. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kuo, C.L. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lahteenmaki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leitch, E.M. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Lewis, A. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Lueker, M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Mason, P. and Matarrese, S. and Megerian, K.G. and Meinhold, P.R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Nguyen, H.T. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and O'Brient, R. and Ogburn IV, R.W. and Orlando, A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T.J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Pratt, G.W. and Prunet, S. and Pryke, C. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reach, W.T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Richter, S. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Schwarz, R. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Sheehy, C.D. and Spencer, L. and Staniszewski, Z.K. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Teply, G.P. and Terenzi, L. and Thompson, K.L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tolan, J.E. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Turner, A.D. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vibert, L. and Vielva, P. and Vieregg, A.G. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Watson, R. and Weber, A.C. and Wehus, I. and White, M. and White, S.D.M. and Willmert, J. and Wong, C.L. and Yoon, K.W. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2015) A Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data. Physical Review Letters, 114 (101301). ISSN 1079-7114

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    Abstract

    We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0h, Dec. −57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2 μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B-modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150 GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parameterized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r0.05<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B-modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: Please cite as “BICEP2/Keck and Planck Collaborations.”
    Keywords: BICEP2/Keck Array; Planck;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14025
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.101301
    Depositing User: IR Editor
    Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2021 15:59
    Journal or Publication Title: Physical Review Letters
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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