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    Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck


    Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Battye, R. and Benabed, K. and Bendo, G. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chen, X. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Clements, D.L. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandez-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hurier, G. and Israel, F. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lahteenmaki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Madden, S. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Pearson, T.J. and Peel, M. and Perdereau, O. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G.W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Watson, R. and Wehus, I. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2015) Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 582 (A28). ISSN 0004-6361

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    Abstract

    The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M 31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiralarms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M 31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission (≳0.3 mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 μm emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 μm emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions for individual 5′ pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that there is a linear decrease in temperature with galactocentric distance for dust heated by the old stellar population, as would be expected, with temperatures ranging from around 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of (18.2 ± 1.0) K with a spectral index of 1.62 ± 0.11 (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant amount of free-free emission at intermediate frequencies of 20–60 GHz, which corresponds to a star formation rate of around 0.12 M⊙ yr-1. We find a 2.3σ detection of the presence of spinning dust emission, with a 30 GHz amplitude of 0.7 ± 0.3 Jy, which is in line with expectations from our Galaxy.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; galaxies: individual: Messier 31; galaxies: structure; galaxies: ISM; submillimeter: galaxies; radio continuum: galaxies;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14096
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424643
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2021 16:18
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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