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    Planck intermediate results. XXI. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust at 353 GHz with interstellar polarization in the visible

    Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Alina, D. and Aniano, G. and Armitage-Caplan, C. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Atrio-Barandela, F. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Battaner, E. and Beichman, C. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J.J. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Burigana, C. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Desert, F.-X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Dunkley, J. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Falgarone, E. and Fanciullo, L. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Guillet, V. and Hansen, F.K. and Harrison, D. and Helou, G. and Hernandez-Monteagudo, C. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lahteenmaki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Magalhães, A.M. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D.J. and Martin, P.G. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Poidevin, F. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G.W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reach, W.T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Roudier, G. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Zonca, A. (2015) Planck intermediate results. XXI. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust at 353 GHz with interstellar polarization in the visible. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 576 (A106). ISSN 0004-6361

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    The Planck survey provides unprecedented full-sky coverage of the submillimetre polarized emission from Galactic dust. In addition to the information on the direction of the Galactic magnetic field, this also brings new constraints on the properties of dust. The dust grains that emit the radiation seen by Planck in the submillimetre also extinguish and polarize starlight in the visible. Comparison of the polarization of the emission and of the interstellar polarization on selected lines of sight probed by stars provides unique new diagnostics of the emission and light scattering properties of dust, and therefore of the important dust model parameters, composition, size, and shape. Using ancillary catalogues of interstellar polarization and extinction of starlight, we obtain the degree of polarization, pV, and the optical depth in the V band to the star, τV. Toward these stars we measure the submillimetre polarized intensity, PS, and total intensity, IS, in the Planck 353 GHz channel. We compare the column density measure in the visible, E(B − V), with that inferred from the Planck product map of the submillimetre dust optical depth and compare the polarization direction (position angle) in the visible with that in the submillimetre. For those lines of sight through the diffuse interstellar medium with comparable values of the estimated column density and polarization directions close to orthogonal, we correlate properties in the submillimetre and visible to find two ratios, RS /V = (PS/IS) / (pV/τV) and RP/p = PS/pV, the latter focusing directly on the polarization properties of the aligned grain population alone.We find RS /V = 4.2, with statistical and systematic uncertainties 0.2 and 0.3, respectively, and RP/p = 5.4 MJy sr-1, with uncertainties 0.2 and 0.3 MJy sr-1, respectively. Our estimate of RS /V is compatible with predictions based on a range of polarizing dust models that have been developed for the diffuse interstellar medium. This estimate provides new empirical validation of many of the common underlying assumptions of the models, but is not yet very discriminating among them. However, our estimate of RP/p is not compatible with predictions, which are too low by a factor of about 2.5. This more discriminating diagnostic, RP/p, indicates that changes to the optical properties in the models of the aligned grain population are required. These new diagnostics, together with the spectral dependence in the submillimetre from Planck,will be important for constraining and understanding the full complexity of the grain models, and for interpreting the Planck thermal dust polarization and refinement of the separation of this contamination of the cosmic microwave background.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: polarization; dust, extinction; ISM: clouds; ISM: magnetic fields; submillimeter: ISM; Planck Collaboration; polarization / dust, extinction / ISM: clouds / ISM: magnetic fields / submillimeter: ISM
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14097
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2021 17:20
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes

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