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    Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    Ade, P.A.R. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Burigana, C. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Clements, D.L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Desert, F.-X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Dupac, X. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J.E. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lahteenmaki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Leon-Tavares, J. and Lesgourgues, J. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Meinhold, P.R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, D. and Pearson, T.J. and Perdereau, O. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G.W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Roudier, G. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Scott, D. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Wehus, I. and White, S.D.M. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2014) Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 571 (A31). ISSN 0004-6361

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    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15′ are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ≤ ℓ ≤ 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ℓ range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described. Subsequent analysis of the beams quantifies the importance of asymmetry in the near sidelobes, which was not fully accounted for initially, affecting the 70/100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3σ except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1σ. We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and find a roughly 2% difference between the Planck and WMAP power spectra in the region of the first acoustic peak.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; cosmology: observations; cosmic background radiation; instrumentation: detectors;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14168
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2021 16:46
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes

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