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    Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission


    Abergel, A. and Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Alves, M.I.R. and Aniano, G. and Armitage-Caplan, C. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Atrio-Barandela, F. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartlett, J.G. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bobin, J. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Bridges, M. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R.-R. and Chiang, H.C. and Chiang, L.-Y. and Christensen, P.R. and Church, S. and Clemens, M. and Clements, D.L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Desert, F.-X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Draine, B.T. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Falgarone, E. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giardino, G. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Guillet, V. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandez-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jewell, J. and Joncas, G. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Knoche, J. and Knox, L. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lahteenmaki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Laureijs, R.J. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Leon-Tavares, J. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D.J. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Massardi, M. and Matarrese, S. and Matthai, F. and Mazzotta, P. and McGehee, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Osborne, S. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Popa, L. and Poutanen, T. and Pratt, G.W. and Prezeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reach, W.T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Roudier, G. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Shellard, E.P.S. and Spencer, L. and Starck, J.-L. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sureau, F. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Turler, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Verstraete, L. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Welikala, N. and Ysard, N. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2014) Planck 2013 results. XI. All-sky model of thermal dust emission. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 571 (A11). ISSN 0004-6361

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    Abstract

    This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 353, 545, and 857 GHz, and IRAS 100 μm data. Using a modified blackbody fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353–3000 GHz range. This model is a good representation of the IRAS and Planck data at 5′ between 353 and 3000 GHz (850 and 100 μm). It shows variations of the order of 30% compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, down to an angular resolution of 5′, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions where the dust temperature varies strongly at small scales in response to dust evolution, extinction, and/or local production of heating photons. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, τ353/NH, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, Tobs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at H I column densities lower than 1020 cm-2 that could be the signature of dust in the warm ionized medium. In the diffuse ISM at high Galactic latitude, we report an anticorrelation between τ353/NH and Tobs while the dust specific luminosity, i.e., the total dust emission integrated over frequency (the radiance) per hydrogen atom, stays about constant, confirming one of the Planck Early Results obtained on selected fields. This effect is compatible with the view that, in the diffuse ISM, Tobs responds to spatial variations of the dust opacity, due to variations of dust properties, in addition to (small) variations of the radiation field strength. The implication is that in the diffuse high-latitude ISM τ353 is not as reliable a tracer of dust column density as we conclude it is in molecular clouds where the correlation of τ353 with dust extinction estimated using colour excess measurements on stars is strong. To estimate Galactic E(B − V) in extragalactic fields at high latitude we develop a new method based on the thermal dust radiance, instead of the dust optical depth, calibrated to E(B − V) using reddening measurements of quasars deduced from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; methods: data analysis; ISM: general; dust, extinction; infrared: ISM; submillimeter: ISM; opacity;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14255
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323195
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2021 17:17
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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