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    Planck intermediate results XXXVII. Evidence of unbound gas from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect


    Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Clements, D.L. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dolag, K. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Genova-Santos, R.T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Hansen, F.K. and Harrison, D. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandez-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Hornstrup, A. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kitaura, F. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Leon-Tavares, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Ma, Y.-Z. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mak, D.S.Y. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and McGehee, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Pratt, G.W. and Puget, J.-L. and Puisieux, S. and Rachen, J.P. and Racine, B. and Reach, W.T. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tucci, M. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Wang, W. and Wehus, I. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2016) Planck intermediate results XXXVII. Evidence of unbound gas from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 586 (A140). ISSN 0004-6361

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    Abstract

    By looking at the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ) in Planck nominal mission data, we present a significant detection of baryons participating in large-scale bulk flows around central galaxies (CGs) at redshift z ≈ 0.1. We estimate the pairwise momentum of the kSZ temperature fluctuations at the positions of the Central Galaxy Catalogue (CGC) samples extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7) data. For the foreground-cleaned SEVEM, SMICA, NILC, and COMMANDER maps, we find 1.8–2.5σ detections of the kSZ signal, which are consistent with the kSZ evidence found in individualPlanck raw frequency maps, although lower than found in the WMAP-9yr W-band (3.3σ). We further reconstruct the peculiar velocity field from the CG density field, and compute for the first time the cross-correlation function between kSZ temperature fluctuations and estimates of CG radial peculiar velocities. This correlation function yields a 3.0–3.7σ detection of the peculiar motion of extended gas on Mpc scales in flows correlated up to distances of 80–100 h-1 Mpc. Both the pairwise momentum estimates and the kSZ temperature-velocity field correlation find evidence for kSZ signatures out to apertures of 8 arcmin and beyond, corresponding to a physical radius of >1 Mpc, more than twice the mean virial radius of halos. This is consistent with the predictions from hydrodynamical simulations that most of the baryons are outside the virialized halos. We fit a simple model, in which the temperature-velocity cross-correlation is proportional to the signal seen in a semi-analytic model built upon N-body simulations, and interpret the proportionality constant as an effective optical depth to Thomson scattering. We find τT = (1.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4; the simplest interpretation of this measurement is that much of the gas is in a diffuse phase, which contributes little signal to X-ray or thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich observations.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; large-scale structure of Universe; galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14308
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526328
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2021 14:37
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes
    URI:

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