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    Planck intermediate results XXXII. The relative orientation between the magnetic field and structures traced by interstellar dust

    Adam, R. and Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Alves, M.I.R. and Arnaud, M. and Arzoumanian, D. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Bracco, A. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Crill, B.P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Falgarone, E. and Ferrière, K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Guillet, V. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandez-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D.J. and Martin, P.G. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.Anthony and Naselsky, P. and Natoli, P. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oppermann, N. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G.W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Reach, W.T. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Roudier, G. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Soler, J.D. and Spencer, L. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Wehus, I. and Wiesemeyer, H. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2016) Planck intermediate results XXXII. The relative orientation between the magnetic field and structures traced by interstellar dust. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 586 (A135). ISSN 0004-6361

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    The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic owing to the paucity of relevant observations needed to test existing models. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353 GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter over the whole sky, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal that structures, or ridges, in the intensity map have counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus our study on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes, which cover two orders of magnitude in column density, from 1020 to 1022 cm-2. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane ofthe sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are usually aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This statistical trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. There is no alignment for the highest column density ridges. We interpret the increase in alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projection effects. We present maps to show that the decrease in alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the distribution of matter and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we also observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, statistically, cannot be accounted for by projection effects. This first statistical study of the relative orientation between the matter structures and the magnetic field in the ISM points out that, at the angular scales probed by Planck, the field geometry projected on the plane of the sky is correlated with the distribution of matter. In the diffuse ISM, the structures of matter are usually aligned with the magnetic field, while perpendicular structures appear in molecular clouds. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which attempt to describe the respective roles of turbulence, magnetic field, and self-gravity in the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Planck Collaboration; ISM: clouds; ISM: magnetic fields; ISM: structure; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); polarization; turbulence;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Experimental Physics
    Item ID: 14420
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Dr. Anthony Murphy
    Date Deposited: 11 May 2021 15:29
    Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Publisher: EDP Sciences
    Refereed: Yes

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