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    Chapter 5 - Global surface temperatures

    Thorne, Peter (2021) Chapter 5 - Global surface temperatures. In: Climate Change (Third Edition). Elsevier, Science direct, pp. 95-109. ISBN 9780128215760

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    The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that warming of the climate system since the start of the instrumental record was unequivocal. While this conclusion does not solely rest upon the surface temperature record, this record is a key aspect underpinning this finding. Herein is discussed the observational evidence basis for increases in global surface temperatures since the start of the instrumental record. This chapter starts by discussing how the measurements have been taken over time. It is then described how necessary efforts to adjust the records to account for time-varying biases have been performed. Resulting global estimates and efforts at quantifying uncertainties therein are then discussed. Changes in temperature extremes are briefly highlighted. This chapter closes with a view to future research directions and innovations.

    Item Type: Book Section
    Additional Information: Cite as: Peter Thorne, Chapter 5 - Global surface temperatures, Editor(s): Trevor M. Letcher, Climate Change (Third Edition), Elsevier, 2021, Pages 95-109, ISBN 9780128215753, (
    Keywords: Surface temperatures; Extremes; Observations; Reanalyses; Temperatures; Trends; Uncertainty;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Social Sciences > Geography
    Faculty of Social Sciences > Research Institutes > Irish Climate Analysis and Research Units, ICARUS
    Item ID: 15561
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Peter Thorne
    Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2022 14:50
    Journal or Publication Title: Climate Change (Third Edition)
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Refereed: No
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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