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    2,2,5,5-Tetramethyloxolane (TMO) as a Solvent for Buchwald–Hartwig Aminations

    Trowse, Benjamin R. and Byrne, Fergal P. and Sherwood, James and O’Brien, Peter and Murray, Jane and Farmer, Thomas J. (2021) 2,2,5,5-Tetramethyloxolane (TMO) as a Solvent for Buchwald–Hartwig Aminations. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 9 (51). pp. 17330-17337. ISSN 2168-0485

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    Buchwald–Hartwig amination is one of the most important methods for the synthesis of N-arylamines and is widely employed for the synthesis of potential pharmaceuticals, natural products, and other fine chemicals. The reaction usually uses a Pd(0) catalyst such as Pd(dba)2 and (±)-BINAP in the presence of a base, and toluene is the most commonly used solvent. However, there are significant safety, toxicological, and environmental hazards associated with the use of toluene. Herein, we demonstrate the successful application of 2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane (TMO), a solvent with a similar property profile to toluene, for Buchwald–Hartwig amination reactions for coupling a wide range of primary and secondary amines with aryl bromides. When NaOt-Bu was used as the base, similar yields were obtained in toluene and TMO. In contrast, using Cs2CO3, TMO outperformed toluene significantly for electron-deficient aryl bromides that could be susceptible to nucleophilic attack. To showcase the use of TMO as a solvent for Buchwald–Hartwig aminations, the synthesis of a key intermediate in the route to smoothened (SMO) receptor antagonist drug candidate SEN826 was successfully accomplished in TMO. Improved metrics and reduction in residual palladium in the isolated amines demonstrate further benefits in the substitution of toluene with TMO in Buchwald–Hartwig aminations.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: Cite as: Trowse, B.R., Byrne, F.P., Sherwood, J., O’Brien, P., Murray, J. & Farmer, T.J. 2021, "2,2,5,5-Tetramethyloxolane (TMO) as a Solvent for Buchwald–Hartwig Aminations", ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering, vol. 9, no. 51, pp. 17330-17337.
    Keywords: Buchwald−Hartwig aminations; green metrics; palladium catalyst; solvent substitution; 2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Chemistry
    Item ID: 17374
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Fergal Byrne
    Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2023 13:02
    Journal or Publication Title: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
    Publisher: ACS Publications
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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