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    Digital image watermarking spread-space spread-spectrum technique based on Double Random Phase Encoding

    Liu, Shi and Hennelly, Bryan M. and Sheridan, John T. (2012) Digital image watermarking spread-space spread-spectrum technique based on Double Random Phase Encoding. Proceedings of SPIE, 8498. pp. 1-11. ISSN 0277-786X

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    In this paper a digital invisible image watermarking technique is proposed based on the numerical simulation of optical Double Random Phase Encoding (DRPE). This technique utilizes the capability of the DRPE to spread the energy of the input information in both the space and the spatial frequency domains using two diffusers. The watermark is in the form of a digital barcode image which is numerically encrypted using a simulation of the optical DRPE process. This produces a random complex image, which is then processed to form a real valued random image with a low number of quantization levels. This signal is added to the host image. Extraction of the barcode, involves applying an inverse DRPE process to the watermarked image followed by a low pass filter. The results presented indicate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method and it is demonstrated that even when using very few quantization levels, i.e. 2-levels, the watermark can still be extracted with very small errors.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: The definitive version of this article is available at DOI: 10.1117/12.2007660
    Keywords: Optical Encryption; Double Random Phase Encoding; Discrete Fourier Transform; Digital Watermarking; Spread Spectrum;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Electronic Engineering
    Faculty of Science and Engineering > Research Institutes > Callan Institute
    Item ID: 6692
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Dr. Bryan Hennelly
    Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2015 16:11
    Journal or Publication Title: Proceedings of SPIE
    Publisher: SPIE
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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