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    Applications of Raman micro-spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics

    Kerr, Laura (2016) Applications of Raman micro-spectroscopy for cancer diagnostics. PhD thesis, National University of Ireland Maynooth.

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    Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any cancer, and as with most solid organ malignancies, early diagnosis, detection, and treatment are imperative for good clinical outcomes. Cystoscopy is the cornerstone of bladder diagnostics for real-time visualization of the bladder mucosa. However, it is an uncomfortable, invasive procedure, and is not without significant risk and potential complications for the patient. Urine cytology is currently the only non-invasive diagnostic tool available for the diagnosis of bladder cancer; this method is highly sensitive for high grade tumours, but has low sensitivity for low grade tumours, which accounts for the majority of cases. Therefore, there exists a clinical need to develop and integrate a non-invasive, accurate technique to assist in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The combination of Raman micro-spectroscopy and voided urine cytology may provide an ideal platform to replace cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnostics. By recording Raman spectra from cells obtained from urine cytology, it is possible to analyse the spectral differences associated with the biomolecular continuum of disease progression, as well as being able to classify between different pathological subgroups. Previous studies to date have shown promising results in the application of Raman based urine cytology; however, there appears a high degree of variability across experimental protocols, which is believed to have hindered the advancement of this technique into the clinic. This thesis involves the design and building of a confocal Raman micro-spectrometer to be utilised for the analysis of urine cytology samples, with a key emphasis on the translation of Raman based urine cytology into the clinic. In order to achieve this, a range of traditional protocols and consumables are systematically examined in terms of their compatibility with Raman micro-spectroscopy, as well as comparing the differences between Raman micro-spectroscopy and another form of vibrational spectroscopy for bladder and prostate cancer diagnostics. Although no patient urine cytology samples are used in this thesis, simulated samples are generated using bladder and prostate cell lines along with commercially available synthetic urine. Additional experimentation is provided in order to investigate the impact of hypoxia and exosomal communication on cellular biochemistry.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Keywords: Applications; Raman micro-spectroscopy; cancer diagnostics;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Electronic Engineering
    Item ID: 7914
    Depositing User: IR eTheses
    Date Deposited: 14 Feb 2017 12:22
      Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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