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    A Review of Wave-to-Wire Models for Wave Energy Converters

    Penalba, Markel and Ringwood, John (2016) A Review of Wave-to-Wire Models for Wave Energy Converters. Energies, 9 (7). p. 506. ISSN 1996-1073

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    Control of wave energy converters (WECs) has been very often limited to hydrodynamic control to absorb the maximum energy possible from ocean waves. This generally ignores or significantly simplifies the performance of real power take-off (PTO) systems. However, including all the required dynamics and constraints in the control problem may considerably vary the control strategy and the power output. Therefore, this paper considers the incorporation into the model of all the conversion stages from ocean waves to the electricity network, referred to as wave-to-wire (W2W) models, and identifies the necessary components and their dynamics and constraints, including grid constraints. In addition, the paper identifies different control inputs for the different components of the PTO system and how these inputs are articulated to the dynamics of the system. Examples of pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or magnetic transmission systems driving a rotary electrical generator, and linear electric generators are provided.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: This paper is based upon work supported by Science Foundation Ireland under Grant No. 13/IA/1886. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (
    Keywords: wave energy; wave-to-wire model; wave resource; hydrodynamic model; hydraulic system; electric generator; power converters; electricity network;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Electronic Engineering
    Faculty of Science and Engineering > Research Institutes > Centre for Ocean Energy Research
    Item ID: 9407
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Professor John Ringwood
    Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2018 14:31
    Journal or Publication Title: Energies
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Refereed: Yes
    Funders: Science Foundation Ireland (SFI)
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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