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    Protein and chemotherapy profiling of extracellular vesicles harvested from therapeutic induced senescent triple negative breast cancer cells

    Kavanagh, Emma L. and Lindsay, Sinead and Halasz, M. and Gubbins, L.C. and Weiner-Gorzel, K. and Guang, M.H.Z. and McGoldrick, A. and Collins, E. and Henry, M. and Blanco-Fernández, A. and O'Gorman, Peter and Fitzpatrick, P. and Higgins, M.J. and Dowling, Paul and McCann, A. (2017) Protein and chemotherapy profiling of extracellular vesicles harvested from therapeutic induced senescent triple negative breast cancer cells. Oncogenesis, 6. e388. ISSN 2157-9024

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    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype with relatively poor clinical outcomes and limited treatment options. Chemotherapy, while killing cancer cells, can result in the generation of highly chemoresistant therapeutic induced senescent (TIS) cells that potentially form stem cell niches resulting in metastases. Intriguingly, senescent cells release significantly more extracellular vesicles (EVs) than non-senescent cells. Our aim was to profile EVs harvested from TIS TNBC cells compared with control cells to identify a potential mechanism by which TIS TNBC cells maintain survival in the face of chemotherapy. TIS was induced and confirmed in Cal51 TNBC cells using the chemotherapeutic paclitaxel (PTX) (Taxol). Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of EVs harvested from TIS compared with control Cal51 cells was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and InnateDB programs. We demonstrate that TIS Cal51 cells treated with 75 nM PTX for 7 days became senescent (senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) positive, Ki67-negative, increased p21 and p16, G2/M cell cycle arrest) and released significantly more EVs (P=0.0002) and exosomes (P=0.0007) than non-senescent control cells. Moreover, TIS cells displayed an increased expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1/p-glycoprotein. MS analysis demonstrated that EVs derived from senescent Cal51 cells contained 142 proteins with a significant increased fold change compared with control EVs. Key proteins included ATPases, annexins, tubulins, integrins, Rabs and insoluble senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. A fluorescent analogue of PTX (Flutax-2) allowed appreciation of the removal of chemotherapy in EVs from senescent cells. Treatment of TIS cells with the exosome biogenesis inhibitor GW4869 resulted in reduced SA-β-Gal staining (P=0.04). In summary, this study demonstrates that TIS cells release significantly more EVs compared with control cells, containing chemotherapy and key proteins involved in cell proliferation, ATP depletion, apoptosis and the SASP. These findings may partially explain why cancer senescent cells remain viable despite chemotherapeutic challenge.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit Cite as: Kavanagh, E., Lindsay, S., Halasz, M. et al. Protein and chemotherapy profiling of extracellular vesicles harvested from therapeutic induced senescent triple negative breast cancer cells. Oncogenesis 6, e388 (2017) doi:10.1038/oncsis.2017.82
    Keywords: Protein profiling; chemotherapy profiling; therapeutic induced senescent triple negative breast cancer cells;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Biology
    Faculty of Science and Engineering > Research Institutes > Human Health Institute
    Item ID: 11619
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Paul Dowling
    Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2019 17:33
    Journal or Publication Title: Oncogenesis
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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