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    Potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict metabolic status of cows through blood components and an innovative clustering approach

    Grelet, C. and Vanlierde, A and Hostens, M and Foldager, L. and Salavati, M. and Ingvartsen, K L and Crowe, M and Sorensen, M T and Froidmont, E and Ferris, C P and Marchitelli, C and Becker, F and Larsen, T and Carter, F and O'Flaherty, Roisin and Dehareng, F (2019) Potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict metabolic status of cows through blood components and an innovative clustering approach. Animal, 13 (3). pp. 649-658. ISSN 1751-7311

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    Unbalanced metabolic status in the weeks after calving predisposes dairy cows to metabolic and infectious diseases. Blood glucose, IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are used as indicators of the metabolic status of cows. This work aims to (1) evaluate the potential of milk mid-IR spectra to predict these blood components individually and (2) to evaluate the possibility of predicting the metabolic status of cows based on the clustering of these blood components. Blood samples were collected from 241 Holstein cows on six experimental farms, at days 14 and 35 after calving. Blood samples were analyzed by reference analysis and metabolic status was defined by k-means clustering (k=3) based on the four blood components. Milk mid-IR analyses were undertaken on different instruments and the spectra were harmonized into a common standardized format. Quantitative models predicting blood components were developed using partial least squares regression and discriminant models aiming to differentiate the metabolic status were developed with partial least squares discriminant analysis. Cross-validations were performed for both quantitative and discriminant models using four subsets randomly constituted. Blood glucose, IGF-I, NEFA and BHB were predicted with respective R2 of calibration of 0.55, 0.69, 0.49 and 0.77, and R2 of cross-validation of 0.44, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.70. Although these models were not able to provide precise quantitative values, they allow for screening of individual milk samples for high or low values. The clustering methodology led to the sharing out of the data set into three groups of cows representing healthy, moderately impacted and imbalanced metabolic status. The discriminant models allow to fairly classify the three groups, with a global percentage of correct classification up to 74%. When discriminating the cows with imbalanced metabolic status from cows with healthy and moderately impacted metabolic status, the models were able to distinguish imbalanced group with a global percentage of correct classification up to 92%. The performances were satisfactory considering the variables are not present in milk, and consequently predicted indirectly. This work showed the potential of milk mid-IR analysis to provide new metabolic status indicators based on individual blood components or a combination of these variables into a global status. Models have been developed within a standardized spectral format, and although robustness should preferably be improved with additional data integrating different geographic regions, diets and breeds, they constitute rapid, cost-effective and large-scale tools for management and breeding of dairy cows.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Fourier transform mid-IR spectrometry; dairy cattle; prediction; biomarker; metabolic clustering;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Chemistry
    Item ID: 15025
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Roisin O'Flaherty
    Date Deposited: 16 Nov 2021 12:42
    Journal or Publication Title: Animal
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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