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    Modes of climate variability: Synthesis and review of proxy-based reconstructions through the Holocene

    Hernández, Armand and Martin-Puertas, Celia and Moffa-Sánchez, Paola and Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo and Ortega, Pablo and Blockley, Simon and Cobb, Kim M. and Comas-Bru, Laia and Giralt, Santiago and Goosse, Hugues and Luterbacher, Jürg and Martrat, Belen and Muscheler, Raimund and Parnell, Andrew and Pla-Rabes, Sergi and Sjolte, Jesper and Scaife, Adam A. and Swingedouw, Didier and Wise, Erika and Xu, Guobao (2020) Modes of climate variability: Synthesis and review of proxy-based reconstructions through the Holocene. Earth-Science Reviews, 209. p. 103286. ISSN 0012-8252

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    Modes of climate variability affect global and regional climates on different spatio-temporal scales, and they have important impacts on human activities and ecosystems. As these modes are a useful tool for simplifying the understanding of the climate system, it is crucial that we gain improved knowledge of their long-term past evolution and interactions over time to contextualise their present and future behaviour. We review the literature focused on proxy-based reconstructions of modes of climate variability during the Holocene (i.e., the last 11.7 thousand years) with a special emphasis on i) proxy-based reconstruction methods; ii) available proxybased reconstructions of the main modes of variability, i.e., El Niño Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Variability, Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Southern Annular Mode and the Indian Ocean Dipole; iii) major interactions between these modes; and iv) external forcing mechanisms related to the evolution of these modes. This review shows that modes of variability can be reconstructed using proxy based records from a wide range of natural archives, but these reconstructions are scarce beyond the last millennium, partly due to the lack of robust chronologies with reduced dating uncertainties, technical issues related to proxy calibration, and difficulty elucidating their stationary impact (or not) on regional climates over time. While for each mode the available reconstructions tend to agree at multidecadal timescales, they show notable disagreement on shorter timescales beyond the instrumental period. The reviewed evidence suggests that the intrinsic variability of modes can be modulated by external forcing, such as orbital, solar, volcanic, and anthropogenic forcing. The review also highlights some modes experience higher variability over the instrumental period, which is partly ascribed to anthropogenic forcing. These features stress the paramount importance of further studying their past variations using long climate-proxy records for the progress of climate science.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: Cite as: Armand Hernández, Celia Martin-Puertas, Paola Moffa-Sánchez, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Pablo Ortega, Simon Blockley, Kim M. Cobb, Laia Comas-Bru, Santiago Giralt, Hugues Goosse, Jürg Luterbacher, Belen Martrat, Raimund Muscheler, Andrew Parnell, Sergi Pla-Rabes, Jesper Sjolte, Adam A. Scaife, Didier Swingedouw, Erika Wise, Guobao Xu, Modes of climate variability: Synthesis and review of proxy-based reconstructions through the Holocene, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 209, 2020, 103286, ISSN 0012-8252, Copyright: Published Version [pathway b]NoneCC BY Any Website, Journal Website, +5 OA FeeThis pathway has an Open Access fee associated with it OA PublishingThis pathway includes Open Access publishing EmbargoNo Embargo LicenceCC BY Location Any Website Institutional Repository Named Repository (PubMed Central, Research for Development Repository, ESRC Research Catalogue) Subject Repository Journal Website ConditionsPublished source must be acknowledged with citation
    Keywords: AMO; ENSO; PDO; NAO; SAM; IOD; Modes of variability; Climate changes; Palaeoclimatology; Holocene; Proxy-based reconstructions
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Mathematics and Statistics
    Faculty of Science and Engineering > Research Institutes > Hamilton Institute
    Faculty of Social Sciences > Research Institutes > Irish Climate Analysis and Research Units, ICARUS
    Item ID: 16224
    Identification Number:
    Depositing User: Andrew Parnell
    Date Deposited: 05 Jul 2022 13:01
    Journal or Publication Title: Earth-Science Reviews
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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