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    Specificity of Association between Paenibacillus spp. and the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp.

    Enright, M.R. and Griffin, Christine (2004) Specificity of Association between Paenibacillus spp. and the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp. Microbial Ecology, 48. pp. 412-421.

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    Endospore-forming bacteria, Paenibacillus spp., have recently been isolated in association with insect pathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis spp. Sporangia adhere to nematode infective juveniles (J3) and are carried with them into insects. Paenibacillus proliferates in the killed insect along with Heterorhabditis and its obligate bacterial symbiont, Photorhabdus, despite the antibiotic production of the latter. Nematode infective juveniles leave the insect cadaver with Paenibacillus sporangia attached. The specificity of the relationship between Paenibacillus and Heterorhabditis was investigated. Sporangia of nematode-associated Paenibacillus adhered to infective juveniles (but not other stages) of all Heterorhabditis species tested, and to infective juveniles of vertebrate parasitic Strongylida species, but not to a variety of other soil nematodes tested. Paenibacillus species that were not isolated from nematodes, but were phylogenetically close to the nematode-associated strains, did not adhere to Heterorhabditis, and they were also sensitive to Photorhabdus antibiotics in vitro, whereas the nematode-associated strains were not. Unusual longevity of the sporangium and resistance to Photorhabdus antibiotics may represent specific adaptations of the nematode-associated Paenibacillus strains to allow them to coexist with and be transported by Heterorhabditis. Adaptation to specific Heterorhabditis- Photorhabdus strains is evident among the three nematode- associated Paenibacillus strains (each from a different nematode strain). Paenibacillus NEM1a and NEM3 each developed best in cadavers with the nematode from which it was isolated and not at all with the nematode associate of the other strain. Differences between nematode-associated Paenibacillus strains in cross-compatibility with the various Heterorhabditis strains in cadavers could not be explained by differential sensitivity to antibiotics produced by the nematodes' Photorhabdus symbionts in vitro.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Paenibacillus spp., Heterorhabditis spp.
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Biology
    Item ID: 314
    Depositing User: Dr. Christine Griffin
    Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2006
    Journal or Publication Title: Microbial Ecology
    Publisher: Springer Science
    Refereed: Yes
    Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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