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    Optimizing application of entomopathogenic nematodes to manage large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) populations developing in pine stumps, Pinus sylvestris

    Dillon, Aoife B. and Downes, Martin and Ward, Declan and Griffin, Christine (2007) Optimizing application of entomopathogenic nematodes to manage large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) populations developing in pine stumps, Pinus sylvestris. Biological Control, 40 (2). pp. 253-263. ISSN 1049-9644

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    Hylobius abietis develops in stumps of recently felled coniferous trees, and adults emerge to feed on and kill young seedlings. Entomopathogenic nematodes applied to stumps containing late instar larvae and pupae can reduce the number of adults emerging. We tested the feasibility of reduced application rate and volume during a broader window of application in field trials in 2004 and 2005. Application at the standard rate of 3.5 million infective juveniles per stump suppressed the number of adults emerging by up to 79–85% relative to controls for Heterorhabditis downesi, 57–64% for Steinernema carpocapsae and 51–56% for S. feltiae. When the application rate was halved, only H. downesi gave a significant reduction in emergence (75–79%). Nematodes applied in April, May or June significantly reduced weevil populations, and application of nematode-killed insects in May was as effective as an aqueous suspension. A fourfold reduction in application volume from 500 to 125 ml per stump did not affect the percentage of weevils parasitized, and stump excavation revealed that even at the reduced volume, both S. carpocapsae (ambusher) and H. downesi (cruiser) parasitized weevils 40–49 cm from the bole and 40–49 cm below soil level. A higher percentage of larvae (60%) were infected than either pupae (36%) or callow adults (18%). Our trials show promise for expanding the use of entomopathogenic nematodes against pine weevil, as the standard application rate can be halved, and the volume reduced to 25% of the standard without significant loss of efficacy, and there is a wide window of opportunity for application, even when soil temperatures are as low as 9 °C.

    Item Type: Article
    Keywords: Hylobius abietis; Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis downesi; Entomopathogenic nematodes; Cadaver application; Nematode dispersal; Low temperature; Foraging strategy; Ambusher; Cruiser; Application rate;
    Academic Unit: Faculty of Science and Engineering > Biology
    Item ID: 7535
    Depositing User: Dr. Christine Griffin
    Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2016 14:46
    Journal or Publication Title: Biological Control
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Refereed: Yes
      Use Licence: This item is available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike Licence (CC BY-NC-SA). Details of this licence are available here

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